Ghost Riding The Whip -- A complete Kubernetes workflow without Docker, using CRI-O, Buildah & kpod

It is my decree that whenever you are using Kubernetes without using Docker you are officially “ghost riding the whip”, maybe even “ghost riding the kube”. (Well, I’m from Vermont, so I’m more like “ghost riding the combine”). And again, we’re running Kubernetes without Docker, but this time? We’ve got an entire workflow without Docker. From image build, to running container, to inspecting the running containers. Thanks to the good folks from the OCI project and Project Atomic, we’ve got kpod for working with running containers, and we’ve got buildah for building our images. And of course, don’t leave out CRI-O which makes the magic happen to get it all running in Kube without Docker. Fire up your terminals, because you’re about to ghost ride the kube.

I happened to see that there is a first release candidate of CRI-O which has a bunch of great improvements that work towards really getting CRI-O production ready for Kubernetes. And I have to say – my experience with using it has been nearly flawless. It’s been working like a champ, and I can tell they’re doing an excellent job with the polish. Of course that’s awesome, but, I was most excited to hear about kpod – “the missing tool”. When I wrote my first article about using CRI-O, I was missing a few portions – especially a half decent tool for checking out what’s going on with containers. This tool isn’t quite as mature as CRI-O itself, but, the presence of this tool at all is just a straight-up boon.

To get this all going, I have these tools (CRI-O, kpod & buildah) integrated into my vanilla kubernetes lab playbooks, kube-ansible. This playbook has it so we can compile CRI-O (which includes kpod), buildah, and get Kubernetes up and running (which uses kubeadm to initialize and join the pods). I made some upgrades to kube-ansible in the process, fixing up issues with kube 1.7, and also improving it so that kube-ansible can also use Fedora. CRI-O itself works wondefully with CentOS, but Buildah needs some kernel functionality that just isn’t available in CentOS yet, so… kube-centos-ansible now also supports Fedora, oddly or not-so-oddly enough.


This walk-through assumes that you have at least 2 machines with Fedora installed (and generally up-to-date). That’s where we’ll install Kubernetes with CRI-O (and kpod!). You might notice that we use kube-ansible, the name of which is… Not so apropos. But! It’s recently been updated to support Fedora. And we need Fedora to get a spankin’ fresh kernel, so we can use… Drum roll please… Buildah – an image building tool that is not Docker (wink, wink!).

Those machines need to have over 2 gigs of RAM. Compilation of CRI-O, specifically during a step with GCC was bombing out on me with GCC complaining it couldn’t allocate memory when I had just 2 gigs of RAM. Therefore, I recommend at least 4 gigs of RAM.

In addition to that, you’ll need git & Ansible installed on “some machine” (likely your workstation). And your handy-dandy editor. Cause… How do you live without an editor? Unless you’re feeding the input in on punch cards, in which case… You have my respect.

TL;DR, you need:

Spinning up a Kubernetes cluster with CRI-O (and kpod included!)

First off, go ahead and clone up the kube-ansible project…

git clone --branch v0.1.3

This article glosses over the fact that the kube-ansible has the ability to spin-up virtual machines to mock-up Kubernetes clusters. However, if you’re familiar with it, you can use it as well. I won’t go into depth here, but this is the technique that I use:

$ ansible-playbook -i inventory/your.inventory -e "vm_parameters_ram_mb=4096" virt-host-setup.yml 

Now we’ll a playbook to bootstrap the nodes with Python (as the Fedora cloud images don’t come packaged with Python).

$ ansible-playbook -i inventory/your.inventory fedora-python-bootstrapper.yml

For your reference here’s the inventory I used. This inventory can also be found in the ./inventory/examples/crio/crio.inventory in the clone. Mostly this is here to show you how to set the variables in order to get this puppy (that is, kube-ansible) to properly use Fedora, when it comes down to it.

kube-master ansible_host=
kube-node-1 ansible_host=
kubehost ansible_host= ansible_ssh_user=root

# Using Fedora


# Using Fedora

Start the Kubernetes install

Then you can go ahead and get your kube install rolling!

$ ansible-playbook -i inventory/vms.inventory -e 'container_runtime=crio' kube-install.yml 

That, my good friend… Is is a coffee-worthy step. It is now time to fuel up while that runs. (We’re compiling some big-idea kind of stuff, like CRI-O [and more]).

Verify that things are hunky dory

(Still unsure what the genesis of the phrase “hunky dory” is. But it means “satisfactory” or “just fine”)

Log yourself into the master. And, first of all things… Make sure you DON’T have Docker. And grin during this step. Cause I sure did.

[fedora@kube-crio-master ~]$ docker
-bash: docker: command not found
[fedora@kube-master ~]$ echo $?

YES. We want that to exit 127!

Make sure to see that the nodes are healthy…

$ kubectl get nodes

And making sure the nodes are in a ready state.

Optionally, spin up a pod. in my case I did a…

[fedora@kube-crio-master ~]$ cat <<EOF | kubectl create -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: ReplicationController
  name: nginx
  replicas: 2
    app: nginx
      name: nginx
        app: nginx
      - name: nginx
        image: nginx
        - containerPort: 80
[fedora@kube-crio-master ~]$ watch -n1 kubectl get pods

They should come up! And if they are you should be able to query nginx.

[fedora@kube-crio-master ~]$ curl -s $(kubectl describe pod $(kubectl get pods | grep nginx | head -n 1 | awk '{print $1}') | grep "^IP" | awk '{print $2}') | grep -i thank
<p><em>Thank you for using nginx.</em></p>

Cool! That means that you have CRI-O up and poppin’. You are officially ghost riding the whip.

Clean that up if you want, with:

[fedora@kube-master ~]$ kubectl delete rc nginx

Wait – didn’t I promise you a complete work-flow that omits Docker at all? That’s right I did. So let’s go ahead and start up a from-scratch workflow here… with…


Awesome. Now, let’s go ahead and log into the node. For ease, for now, we’ll also sudo su -. In the future, you might wanna set this up to work for a specific user, but, I’ll leave that as a journey for the reader.

Check out the help for buildah, if you wish. That’s how I learned how to do this myself.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# buildah --help

Now, let’s create a “Dockerfile”. We’ll use the Dockerfile syntax, as I’m familiar with it, and if you have existing Dockerfiles – buildah supports that!

So go ahead and make yourself a Dockerfile like so.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# cat Dockerfile 
FROM fedora:26
RUN dnf install -y cowsay-beefymiracle cowsay
ENTRYPOINT ["cowsay","-s","Shoutout from Vermont!"]

This image is just a couple RPMs, really. Mostly cowsay (and then an extra “cowsay file” to add the beefy miracle art. According to Wikipedia:

cowsay is a program that generates ASCII pictures of a cow with a message.

And you think that machine learning is high tech? Obviously you haven’t seen cow ASCII art insult a co-worker before. The pinnacle of technology.

BONUS: To insult your co-workers using cowsay, install the package with dnf install cowsay and use wall to broadcast a message to all terminals logged into a machine.

[fedora@kube-node-1 ~]$ cowsay -s "your mother wears army boots" | wall
Broadcast message from fedora@kube-node-1 (pts/0) (Wed Sep 20 13:32:41 2017):
< your mother wears army boots >                                               
        \   ^__^                                                               
         \  (**)\_______                                                       
            (__)\       )\/\                                                   
             U  ||----w |                                                      
                ||     ||                                                      

Now that you have sufficiently made enemies with your co-workers, back to getting this workflow going.

Go ahead and kick off the build. And on the subject of ASCII – enjoy yourself the nicer ASCII progress bars than Docker, too.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# buildah  --storage-driver overlay2 bud -t dougbtv/beefy .

The command we’re using there is buildah budbud is “build using dockerfile”. Very nice feature.

Note that we’re setting --storage-driver overlay2 (as a global option) which will store the images in the proper locations for runc (and therefore CRI-O) to see where these images are.

Also, for what it’s worth – I didn’t have great luck with the build cache on subsequent runs of buildah. I’m unsure what the progress on that functionality in buildah itself is. Likely, it may be something I did wrong in the compilation or installation of buildah, so if you see it and shoot me a note on twitter or place a github issue, that’d be awesome.

You can go ahead and list what you just built. Note that we’re including the storage driver option, again.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# buildah  --storage-driver overlay2 images | grep -P "(IMAGE|beefy)"
IMAGE ID             IMAGE NAME                                               CREATED AT             SIZE
95c3725439f6                           Sep 15, 2017 23:28     1.983 KB

Great! You’ve got an image.

Now, lets run that image!

We’ll do this with Kubernetes itself today. Log into your master, and first thing, let’s specify a label that we’ll use for a node selector (which will specify on which node we’ll run this particular pod). In this case we’re doing this because we don’t have a registry to pull the images from, so, we’ve got to tell Kube to run the pod in a particular place – because that where we built the image.

Here’s the (admittedly zany) label that I added. (You can make a lot less insane node selector constraint if you’re sound of mind, too.)

$ kubectl label nodes kube-node-1 beefylevel=expert

And you can see what’s been labeled with:

[fedora@kube-master ~]$ kubectl get nodes --show-labels

Create yourself a beefy.yaml. Here you’ll see a few things that are fairly important, but something to pay attention to in this context is the imagePullPolicy: Never. Since this isn’t available on a registry, we want to tell Kubernetes “don’t even try to pull this”, by default it will try, say it can’t pull it, and then it won’t run the container.

Here’s the beefy.yaml I created.

[fedora@kube-master ~]$ cat beefy.yaml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
    app: beefy
  name: beefy
   - command:
       - "/bin/bash"
       - "-c"
       - "cowsay -f /usr/share/cowsay/beefymiracle.cow -s 'shouts from Vermont' && sleep 2000000"
     image: dougbtv/beefy
     name: beefy
     imagePullPolicy: Never
    beefylevel: expert

Go ahead and create that…

[fedora@kube-master ~]$ kubectl create -f beefy.yaml 
pod "beefy" created

And watch it come up.

[fedora@kube-master ~]$ watch -n1 kubectl get pods -o wide

(Note that it should be saying it’s coming up on kube-node-1)

Now for the pay day… Let’s see it rollin’.

[fedora@kube-master ~]$ kubectl logs beefy
< shouts from Vermont >
                      .---. __
           ,         /     \   \    ||||
          \\\\      |O___O |    | \\||||
          \   //    | \_/  |    |  \   /
           '--/----/|     /     |   |-'
                  // //  /     -----'
                 //  \\ /      /
                //  // /      /
               //  \\ /      /
              //  // /      /
             /|   ' /      /
             //\___/      /
            //   ||\     /
            \\_  || '---'
            /' /  \\_.-
           /  /    --| |
           '-'      |  |

Huzzah! We’ve got Beefy. It’s a gosh darned miracle. Dang heckin’ good job.

Awesome! That’s a whole workflow without Docker. Aww yisss. Now, let’s put a cherry on top…

Let’s try out kpod!

Enter kpod! That’s the missing tool from my last CRI-O article. We only had some really rudimentary stuff in runc that could do this for us. But, the Atomic guys are really tearing it up, and now we’ve got kpod which can do a whole lot more for us.

Now that we have a running container – We can check it out with kpod. There’s a lot more features on the way for kpod, but, for now it gives a nice way to work with your containers (and some container image utilities). I wanted to run it directly with this, but, that’s in the works at the tag at which I have CRI-O/kpod pinned.

So go ahead and log into the node… And we’ll sudo su - for now (as above). And let’s list the container processes…

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# kpod ps

Awesome! You should see dougbtv/beefy:latest in there.

And you can list the images with this tool, too.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# kpod images

Say you want to see what’s in the ephemeral storage of an image, we can use kpod for this, too. So let’s pick up the id of our running container.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# beefyid=$(kpod ps | grep -i beef | awk '{print $1}')
[root@kube-node-1 ~]# echo $beefyid

Now we can use that in order to look at what’s in the container. Let’s just cat the definition for the beefy miracle in cowsay.

[root@kube-node-1 ~]# cat $(kpod mount $beefyid)/usr/share/cowsay/beefymiracle.cow

That should show you a heavily escaped ASCII hotdog. Alright! Nice work Project Atomic folks! Quite a feat.